Sunday, March 23, 2008

QA Interview Questions

1. How you used WinRunner in your project?
Yes, I have been using WinRunner for creating automated scripts for GUI, functional and regression testing of the AUT.

2. Explain WinRunner testing process?
WinRunner testing process involves six main stages:
* Create GUI Map File so that WinRunner can recognize the GUI objects in
the application being tested
* Create test scripts by recording, programming, or a combination of both.
While recording tests, insert checkpoints where you want to check the
response of the application being tested.
* Debug Test: run tests in Debug mode to make sure they run smoothly
* Run Tests: run tests in Verify mode to test your application.
* View Results: determines the success or failure of the tests.
* Report Defects: If a test run fails due to a defect in the application
being tested, you can report information about the defect directly from
the Test Results window.

3. What is contained in the GUI map?
WinRunner stores information it learns about a window or object in a GUI Map. When WinRunner runs a test, it uses the GUI map to locate objects. It reads an object.s description in the GUI map and then looks for an object with the same properties in the application being tested. Each of these objects in the GUI Map file will be having a logical name and a physical description. There are 2 types of GUI Map files. Global GUI Map file: a single GUI Map file for the entire application. GUI Map File per Test: WinRunner automatically creates a GUI Map file for each test created.

4. How does WinRunner recognize objects on the application?
WinRunner uses the GUI Map file to recognize objects on the application. When WinRunner runs a test, it uses the GUI map to locate objects. It reads an object.s description in the GUI map and then looks for an object with the same properties in the application being tested.

5. Have you created test scripts and what is contained in the test scripts?
Yes I have created test scripts. It contains the statement in Mercury Interactive.s Test Script Language (TSL). These statements appear as a test script in a test window. You can then enhance your recorded test script, either by typing in additional TSL functions and programming elements or by using WinRunner.s visual programming tool, the Function Generator.

6. How does WinRunner evaluate test results?
Following each test run, WinRunner displays the results in a report. The report details all the major events that occurred during the run, such as checkpoints, error messages, system messages, or user messages. If mismatches are detected at checkpoints during the test run, you can view the expected results and the actual results from the Test Results window.

7. Have you performed debugging of the scripts?
Yes, I have performed debugging of scripts. We can debug the script by executing the script in the debug mode. We can also debug script using the Step, Step Into, Step out functionalities provided by the WinRunner.

8. How do you run your test scripts?
We run tests in Verify mode to test your application. Each time WinRunner encounters a checkpoint in the test script, it compares the current data of the application being tested to the expected data captured earlier. If any mismatches are found, WinRunner captures them as actual results.

9. How do you analyze results and report the defects?
Following each test run, WinRunner displays the results in a report. The report details all the major events that occurred during the run, such as checkpoints, error messages, system messages, or user messages. If mismatches are detected at checkpoints during the test run, you can view the expected results and the actual results from the Test Results window. If a test run fails due to a defect in the application being tested, you can report information about the defect directly from the Test Results window. This information is sent via e-mail to the quality assurance manager, who tracks the defect until it is fixed.

10. What is the use of Test Director software?
TestDirector is Mercury Interactive.s software test management tool. It helps quality assurance personnel plan and organize the testing process. With TestDirector you can create a database of manual and automated tests, build test cycles, run tests, and report and track defects. You can also create reports and graphs to help review the progress of planning tests, running tests, and tracking defects before a software release.

11. Have you integrated your automated scripts from TestDirector?
When you work with WinRunner, you can choose to save your tests directly to your TestDirector database or while creating a test case in the TestDirector we can specify whether the script in automated or manual. And if it is automated script then TestDirector will build a skeleton for the script that can be later modified into one which could be used to test the AUT.

12. What are the different modes of recording?
There are two type of recording in WinRunner. Context Sensitive recording records the operations you perform on your application by identifying Graphical User Interface (GUI) objects. Analog recording records keyboard input, mouse clicks, and the precise x- and y-coordinates traveled by the mouse pointer across the screen.

13. What is the purpose of loading WinRunner Add-Ins?
Add-Ins are used in WinRunner to load functions specific to the particular add-in to the memory. While creating a script only those functions in the add-in selected will be listed in the function generator and while executing the script only those functions in the loaded add-in will be executed else WinRunner will give an error message saying it does not recognize the function.

14. What are the reasons that WinRunner fails to identify an object on the GUI?
WinRunner fails to identify an object in a GUI due to various reasons. The object is not a standard windows object. If the browser used is not compatible with the WinRunner version, GUI Map Editor will not be able to learn any of the objects displayed in the browser window.

15. What is meant by the logical name of the object?
An object.s logical name is determined by its class. In most cases, the logical name is the label that appears on an object.

16. If the object does not have a name then what will be the logical name?
If the object does not have a name then the logical name could be the attached text.

17. What is the different between GUI map and GUI map files?
The GUI map is actually the sum of one or more GUI map files. There are two modes for organizing GUI map files. Global GUI Map file: a single GUI Map file for the entire application. GUI Map File per Test: WinRunner automatically creates a GUI Map file for each test created. GUI Map file is a file which contains the windows and the objects learned by the WinRunner with its logical name and their physical description.

18. How do you view the contents of the GUI map?
GUI Map editor displays the content of a GUI Map. We can invoke GUI Map Editor from the Tools Menu in WinRunner. The GUI Map Editor displays the various GUI Map files created and the windows and objects learned in to them with their logical name and physical description.

19. When you create GUI map do you record all the objects of specific objects?
If we are learning a window then WinRunner automatically learns all the objects in the window else we will we identifying those object, which are to be learned in a window, since we will be working with only those objects while creating scripts.

"LoadRunner interview questions"

1. What is load testing?
Load testing is to test that if the application works fine with the loads that result from large number of simultaneous users, transactions and to determine weather it can handle peak usage periods.

2. What is Performance testing?
Timing for both read and update transactions should be gathered to determine whether system functions are being performed in an acceptable timeframe. This should be done standalone and then in a multi user environment to determine the effect of multiple transactions on the timing of a single transaction.

3. Did u use LoadRunner? What version?
Yes. Version .8.2.

4. Explain the Load testing process?
Step 1: Planning the test. Here, we develop a clearly defined test plan to ensure the test scenarios we develop will accomplish load-testing objectives.
Step 2: Creating Vusers. Here, we create Vuser scripts that contain tasks performed by each Vuser, tasks performed by Vusers as a whole, and tasks measured as transactions.
Step 3: Creating the scenario. A scenario describes the events that occur during a testing session. It includes a list of machines, scripts, and Vusers that run during the scenario. We create scenarios using LoadRunner Controller. We can create manual scenarios as well as goal-oriented scenarios. In manual scenarios, we define the number of Vusers, the load generator machines, and percentage of Vusers to be assigned to each script. For web tests, we may create a goal-oriented scenario where we define the goal that our test has to achieve. LoadRunner automatically builds a scenario for us.
Step 4: Running the scenario.
We emulate load on the server by instructing multiple Vusers to perform tasks simultaneously. Before the testing, we set the scenario configuration and scheduling. We can run the entire scenario, Vuser groups, or individual Vusers.
Step 5: Monitoring the scenario.
We monitor scenario execution using the LoadRunner online runtime, transaction, system resource, Web resource, Web server resource, Web application server resource, database server resource, network delay, streaming media resource, firewall server resource, ERP server resource, and Java performance monitors.
Step 6: Analyzing test results. During scenario execution, LoadRunner records the performance of the application under different loads. We use LoadRunner.s graphs and reports to analyze the application.s performance.

5. When do you do load and performance Testing?
We perform load testing once we are done with interface (GUI) testing. Modern system architectures are large and complex. Whereas single user testing primarily on functionality and user interface of a system component, application testing focuses on performance and reliability of an entire system. For example, a typical application-testing scenario might depict 1000 users logging in simultaneously to a system. This gives rise to issues such as what is the response time of the system, does it crash, will it go with different software applications and platforms, can it hold so many hundreds and thousands of users, etc. This is when we set do load and performance testing.

6. What are the components of LoadRunner?
The components of LoadRunner are The Virtual User Generator, Controller, and the Agent process, LoadRunner Analysis and Monitoring, LoadRunner Books Online.

7. What Component of LoadRunner would you use to record a Script?
The Virtual User Generator (VuGen) component is used to record a script. It enables you to develop Vuser scripts for a variety of application types and communication protocols.

8. What Component of LoadRunner would you use to play Back the script in multi user mode?
The Controller component is used to playback the script in multi-user mode. This is done during a scenario run where a vuser script is executed by a number of vusers in a group.

9. What is a rendezvous point?
You insert rendezvous points into Vuser scripts to emulate heavy user load on the server. Rendezvous points instruct Vusers to wait during test execution for multiple Vusers to arrive at a certain point, in order that they may simultaneously perform a task. For example, to emulate peak load on the bank server, you can insert a rendezvous point instructing 100 Vusers to deposit cash into their accounts at the same time.

10. What is a scenario?
A scenario defines the events that occur during each testing session. For example, a scenario defines and controls the number of users to emulate, the actions to be performed, and the machines on which the virtual users run their emulations.

11. Explain the recording mode for web Vuser script?
We use VuGen to develop a Vuser script by recording a user performing typical business processes on a client application. VuGen creates the script by recording the activity between the client and the server. For example, in web based applications, VuGen monitors the client end of the database and traces all the requests sent to, and received from, the database server. We use VuGen to: Monitor the communication between the application and the server; Generate the required function calls; and Insert the generated function calls into a Vuser script.

12. Why do you create parameters?
Parameters are like script variables. They are used to vary input to the server and to emulate real users. Different sets of data are sent to the server each time the script is run. Better simulate the usage model for more accurate testing from the Controller; one script can emulate many different users on the system.

13. What is correlation?
Explain the difference between automatic correlation and manual correlation? - Correlation is used to obtain data which are unique for each run of the script and which are generated by nested queries. Correlation provides the value to avoid errors arising out of duplicate values and also optimizing the code (to avoid nested queries). Automatic correlation is where we set some rules for correlation. It can be application server specific. Here values are replaced by data which are created by these rules. In manual correlation, the value we want to correlate is scanned and create correlation is used to correlate.

14. How do you find out where correlation is required?
Give few examples from your projects? - Two ways: First we can scan for correlations, and see the list of values which can be correlated. From this we can pick a value to be correlated. Secondly, we can record two scripts and compare them. We can look up the difference file to see for the values which needed to be correlated. In my project, there was a unique id developed for each customer, it was nothing but Insurance Number, it was generated automatically and it was sequential and this value was unique. I had to correlate this value, in order to avoid errors while running my script. I did using scan for correlation.

15. Where do you set automatic correlation options?
Automatic correlation from web point of view can be set in recording options and correlation tab. Here we can enable correlation for the entire script and choose either issue online messages or offline actions, where we can define rules for that correlation. Automatic correlation for database can be done using show output window and scan for correlation and picking the correlate query tab and choose which query value we want to correlate. If we know the specific value to be correlated, we just do create correlation for the value and specify how the value to be created.

16. What is a function to capture dynamic values in the web Vuser script? Web_reg_save_param function saves dynamic data information to a parameter.

17. When do you disable log in Virtual User Generator, When do you choose standard and extended logs?
Once we debug our script and verify that it is functional, we can enable logging for errors only. When we add a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled. Standard Log Option: When you select Standard log, it creates a standard log of functions and messages sent during script execution to use for debugging. Disable this option for large load testing scenarios. When you copy a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled Extended Log Option: Select
extended log to create an extended log, including warnings and other messages. Disable this option for large load testing scenarios. When you copy a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled. We can specify which additional information should be added to the extended log using the Extended log options.

18. How do you debug a LoadRunner script?
VuGen contains two options to help debug Vuser scripts-the Run Step by Step command and breakpoints. The Debug settings in the Options dialog box allow us to determine the extent of the trace to be performed during scenario execution. The debug information is written to the Output window. We can manually set the message class within your script using the lr_set_debug_message function. This is useful if we want to receive debug information about a small section of the script only.

19. How do you write user defined functions in LR?
Give me few functions you wrote in your previous project? - Before we create the User Defined functions we need to create the external library (DLL) with the function. We add this library to VuGen bin directory. Once the library is added then we assign user defined function as a parameter. The function should have the following format: __declspec (dllexport) char* (char*, char*)Examples of user defined functions are as follows:GetVersion, GetCurrentTime, GetPltform are some of the user defined functions used in my earlier project.

20. What are the changes you can make in run-time settings?
The Run Time Settings that we make are: a) Pacing - It has iteration count. b) Log - Under this we have Disable Logging Standard Log and c) Extended Think Time - In think time we have two options like Ignore think time and Replay think time. d) General - Under general tab we can set the vusers as process or as multithreading and whether each step as a transaction.

21. Where do you set Iteration for Vuser testing?
We set Iterations in the Run Time Settings of the VuGen. The navigation for this is Run time settings, Pacing tab, set number of iterations.

22. How do you perform functional testing under load?
Functionality under load can be tested by running several Vusers concurrently. By increasing the amount of Vusers, we can determine how much load the server can sustain.

23. What is Ramp up? How do you set this?
This option is used to gradually increase the amount of Vusers/load on the server. An initial value is set and a value to wait between intervals can be specified. To set Ramp Up, go to ‘Scenario Scheduling Options’

24. What is the advantage of running the Vuser as thread?
VuGen provides the facility to use multithreading. This enables more Vusers to be run per
generator. If the Vuser is run as a process, the same driver program is loaded into memory for each Vuser, thus taking up a large amount of memory. This limits the number of Vusers that can be run on a single generator. If the Vuser is run as a thread, only one instance of the driver program is loaded into memory for the given number of Vusers (say 100). Each thread shares the memory of the parent driver program, thus enabling more Vusers to be run per generator.

25. If you want to stop the execution of your script on error, how do you do that?
The lr_abort function aborts the execution of a Vuser script. It instructs the Vuser to stop executing the Actions section, execute the vuser_end section and end the execution. This function is useful when you need to manually abort a script execution as a result of a specific error condition. When you end a script using this function, the Vuser is assigned the status “Stopped”. For this to take effect, we have to first uncheck the .Continue on error. option in Run-Time Settings.

26. What is the relation between Response Time and Throughput?
The Throughput graph shows the amount of data in bytes that the Vusers received from the server in a second. When we compare this with the transaction response time, we will notice that as throughput decreased, the response time also decreased. Similarly, the peak throughput and highest response time would occur approximately at the same time.

27. Explain the Configuration of your systems?
The configuration of our systems refers to that of the client machines on which we run the Vusers. The configuration of any client machine includes its hardware settings, memory, operating system, software applications, development tools, etc. This system component configuration should match with the overall system configuration that would include the network infrastructure, the web server, the database server, and any other components that go with this larger system so as to achieve the load testing objectives.

28. How do you identify the performance bottlenecks?
Performance Bottlenecks can be detected by using monitors. These monitors might be application server monitors, web server monitors, database server monitors and network monitors. They help in finding out the troubled area in our scenario which causes increased response time. The measurements made are usually performance response time, throughput, hits/sec, network delay graphs, etc.

29. If web server, database and Network are all fine where could be the problem?
The problem could be in the system itself or in the application server or in the code written for the application.

30. How did you find web server related issues?
Using Web resource monitors we can find the performance of web servers. Using these monitors we can analyze throughput on the web server, number of hits per second that occurred during scenario, the number of http responses per second, the number of downloaded pages per second.

31. How did you find database related issues?
By running .Database. monitor and help of .Data Resource Graph. we can find database related issues. E.g. You can specify the resource you want to measure on before running the controller and than you can see database related issues

32. Explain all the web recording options?

33. What is the difference between Overlay graph and Correlate graph?
Overlay Graph: It overlay the content of two graphs that shares a common x-axis. Left Y-axis on the merged graph show.s the current graph.s value & Right Y-axis show the value of Y-axis of the graph that was merged. Correlate Graph: Plot the Y-axis of two graphs against each other. The active graph.s Y-axis becomes X-axis of merged graph. Y-axis of the graph that was merged becomes merged graph.s Y-axis.

34. How did you plan the Load? What are the Criteria?
Load test is planned to decide the number of users, what kind of machines we are going to use and from where they are run. It is based on 2 important documents, Task Distribution Diagram and Transaction profile. Task Distribution Diagram gives us the information on number of users for a particular transaction and the time of the load. The peak usage and off-usage are decided from this Diagram. Transaction profile gives us the information about the transactions name and their priority levels with regard to the scenario we are deciding.

35. What does vuser_init action contain?
Vuser_init action contains procedures to login to a server.

36. What does vuser_end action contain?
Vuser_end section contains log off procedures.

37. What is think time? How do you change the threshold?
Think time is the time that a real user waits between actions. Example: When a user receives data from a server, the user may wait several seconds to review the data before responding. This delay is known as the think time. Changing the Threshold: Threshold level is the level below which the recorded think time will be ignored. The default value is five (5) seconds. We can change the think time threshold in the Recording options of the Vugen.

38. What is the difference between standard log and extended log?
The standard log sends a subset of functions and messages sent during script execution to a log. The subset depends on the Vuser type Extended log sends a detailed script execution messages to the output log. This is mainly used during debugging when we want information about: Parameter substitution. Data returned by the server. Advanced trace.

39. Explain the following functions:
lr_debug_message - The lr_debug_message function sends a debug message to the output log when the specified message class is set.
lr_output_message - The lr_output_message function sends notifications to the Controller Output window and the Vuser log file.
lr_error_message - The lr_error_message function sends an error message to the LoadRunner Output window. lrd_stmt - The lrd_stmt function associates a character string (usually a SQL statement) with a cursor. This function sets a SQL statement to be processed. lrd_fetch - The lrd_fetch function fetches the next row from the result set.

40. Throughput
If the throughput scales upward as time progresses and the number of Vusers increase, this indicates that the bandwidth is sufficient. If the graph were to remain relatively flat as the number of Vusers increased, it would be reasonable to conclude that the bandwidth is constraining the volume of data delivered.

41. Types of Goals in Goal-Oriented Scenario
Load Runner provides you with five different types of goals in a goal oriented scenario:
* The number of concurrent Vusers
* The number of hits per second
* The number of transactions per second
* The number of pages per minute
* The transaction response time that you want your scenario

42. Analysis Scenario (Bottlenecks):
In Running Vuser graph correlated with the response time graph you can see that as the number of Vusers increases, the average response time of the check itinerary transaction very gradually increases. In other words, the average response time steadily increases as the load increases. At 56 Vusers, there is a sudden, sharp increase in the average response time. We say that the test broke the server. That is the mean time before failure (MTBF). The response time clearly began to degrade when there were more than 56 Vusers running simultaneously.

43. What is correlation?
Explain the difference between automatic correlation and manual correlation? - Correlation is used to obtain data which are unique for each run of the script and which are generated by nested queries. Correlation provides the value to avoid errors arising out of duplicate values and also optimizing the code (to avoid nested queries). Automatic correlation is where we set some rules for correlation. It can be application server specific. Here values are replaced by data which are created by these rules. In manual correlation, the value we want to correlate is scanned and create correlation is used to correlate.

44. Where do you set automatic correlation options?
Automatic correlation from web point of view, can be set in recording options and correlation tab. Here we can enable correlation for the entire script and choose either issue online messages or offline actions, where we can define rules for that correlation. Automatic correlation for database, can be done using show output window and scan for correlation and picking the correlate query tab and choose which query value we want to correlate. If we know the specific value to be
correlated, we just do create correlation for the value and specify how the value to be created.

45. What is a function to capture dynamic values in the web vuser script? Web_reg_save_param function saves dynamic data information to a parameter.

"Software tester (SQA) interview questions"

These questions are used for software tester or SQA (Software Quality Assurance) positions. Refer to The Real World of Software Testing for more information in the field.

1. The top management was feeling that when there are any changes in the technology being used, development schedules etc, it was a waste of time to update the Test Plan. Instead, they were emphasizing that you should put your time into testing than working on the test plan. Your Project Manager asked for your opinion. You have argued that Test Plan is very important and you need to update your test plan from time to time. It’s not a waste of time and testing activities would be more effective when you have your plan clear. Use some metrics. How you would support your argument to have the test plan consistently updated all the time.

2. The QAI is starting a project to put the CSTE certification online. They will use an automated process for recording candidate information, scheduling candidates for exams, keeping track of results and sending out certificates. Write a brief test plan for this new project.

3. The project had a very high cost of testing. After going in detail, someone found out that the testers are spending their time on software that doesn’t have too many defects. How will you make sure that this is correct?

4. What are the disadvantages of overtesting?
5. What happens to the test plan if the application has a functionality not mentioned in the requirements?
6. You are given two scenarios to test. Scenario 1 has only one terminal for entry and processing whereas scenario 2 has several terminals where the data input can be made. Assuming that the processing work is the same, what would be the specific tests that you would perform in Scenario 2, which you would not carry on Scenario 1?
7. Your customer does not have experience in writing Acceptance Test Plan. How will you do that in coordination with customer? What will be the contents of Acceptance Test Plan?
8. How do you know when to stop testing?
9. What can you do if the requirements are changing continuously?
10. What is the need for Test Planning?
11. What are the various status reports you will generate to Developers and Senior Management?
12. Define and explain any three aspects of code review?
13. Why do you need test planning?
14. Explain 5 risks in an e-commerce project. Identify the personnel that must be involved in the risk analysis of a project and describe their duties. How will you prioritize the risks?
15. What are the various status reports that you need generate for Developers and Senior Management?
16. You have been asked to design a Defect Tracking system. Think about the fields you would specify in the defect tracking system?
17. Write a sample Test Policy?
18. Explain the various types of testing after arranging them in a chronological order?
19. Explain what test tools you will need for client-server testing and why?
20. Explain what test tools you will need for Web app testing and why?
21. Explain pros and cons of testing done development team and testing by an independent team?
22. Differentiate Validation and Verification?
23. Explain Stress, Load and Performance testing?
24. Describe automated capture/playback tools and list their benefits?
25. How can software QA processes be implemented without stifling productivity?
26. How is testing affected by object-oriented designs?
27. What is extreme programming and what does it have to do with testing?
28. Write a test transaction for a scenario where 6.2% of tax deduction for the first $62,000 of income has to be done?
29. What would be the Test Objective for Unit Testing? What are the quality measurements to assure that unit testing is complete?
30. Prepare a checklist for the developers on Unit Testing before the application comes to testing department.
31. Draw a pictorial diagram of a report you would create for developers to determine project status.
32. Draw a pictorial diagram of a report you would create for users and management to determine project status.
33. What 3 tools would you purchase for your company for use in testing? Justify the need?
34. Put the following concepts, put them in order, and provide a brief description of each:
* system testing
* acceptance testing
* unit testing
* integration testing
* benefits realization testing
35. What are two primary goals of testing?
36. If your company is going to conduct a review meeting, who should be on the review committe and why?
37. Write any three attributes which will impact the Testing Process?
38. What activity is done in Acceptance Testing, which is not done in System testing?
39. You are a tester for testing a large system. The system data model is very large with many attributes and there are a lot of inter-dependencies within the fields. What steps would you use to test the system and also what are the effects of the steps you have taken on the test plan?
40. Explain and provide examples for the following black box techniques?
* Boundary Value testing
* Equivalence testing
* Error Guessing
41. What are the product standards for?
* Test Plan
* Test Script and Test Report
42. You are the test manager starting on system testing. The development team says that due to a change in the requirements, they will be able to deliver the system for SQA 5 days past the deadline. You cannot change the resources (work hours, days, or test tools). What steps will you take to be able to finish the testing in time?
43. Your company is about to roll out an e-commerce application. It’s not possible to test the application on all types of browsers on all platforms and operating systems. What steps would you take in the testing environment to reduce the business risks and commercial risks?
44. In your organization, testers are delivering code for system testing without performing unit testing. Give an example of test policy:
* Policy statement
* Methodology
* Measurement
45. Testers in your organization are performing tests on the deliverables even after significant defects have been found. This has resulted in unnecessary testing of little value, because re-testing needs to be done after defects have been rectified. You are going to update the test plan with recommendations on when to halt testing. Wwhat recommendations are you going to make?
46. How do you measure:
* Test Effectiveness
* Test Efficiency
47. You found out the senior testers are making more mistakes then junior testers; you need to communicate this aspect to the senior tester. Also, you don’t want to lose this tester. How should one go about constructive criticism?
48. You are assigned to be the test lead for a new program that will automate take-offs and landings at an airport. How would you write a test strategy for this new program?


Wednesday, January 23, 2008

"Musing on Software Testing and Quality Assurance"

Acceptance Testing:Testing conducted to enable a user/customer to determine whether to accept a software product. Normally performed to validate the software meets a set of agreed acceptance criteria.

Accessibility Testing: Verifying a product is accessible to the people having disabilities (deaf, blind, mentally disabled etc.).

Ad Hoc Testing: A testing phase where the tester tries to ‘break’ the system by randomly trying the system’s functionality. Can include negative testing as well. See also Monkey Testing.

Agile Testing: Testing practice for projects using agile methodologies, treating development as the customer of testing and emphasizing a test-first design paradigm. See also Test Driven Development.

Application Binary Interface (ABI): A specification defining requirements for portability of applications in binary forms across defferent system platforms and environments.

Application Programming Interface (API): A formalized set of software calls and routines that can be referenced by an application program in order to access supporting system or network services.

Automated Software Quality (ASQ): The use of software tools, such as automated testing tools, to improve software quality.

Automated Testing: Testing employing software tools which execute tests without manual intervention. Can be applied in GUI, performance, API, etc. testing.
The use of software to control the execution of tests, the comparison of actual outcomes to predicted outcomes, the setting up of test preconditions, and other test control and test reporting functions.

Backus-Naur Form: A metalanguage used to formally describe the syntax of a language.
Basic Block: A sequence of one or more consecutive, executable statements containing no branches.

Basis Path Testing: A white box test case design technique that uses the algorithmic flow of the program to design tests.

Basis Set: The set of tests derived using basis path testing.

Baseline: The point at which some deliverable produced during the software engineering process is put under formal change control.

Benchmark Testing:Tests that use representative sets of programs and data designed to evaluate the performance of computer hardware and software in a given configuration.

Beta Testing: Testing of a rerelease of a software product conducted by customers.
Binary Portability Testing: Testing an executable application for portability across system platforms and environments, usually for conformation to an ABI specification.

Black Box Testing: Testing based on an analysis of the specification of a piece of software without reference to its internal workings. The goal is to test how well the component conforms to the published requirements for the component.

Bottom Up Testing: An approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first, then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.

Boundary Testing: Test which focus on the boundary or limit conditions of the software being tested. (Some of these tests are stress tests).

Boundary Value Analysis: In boundary value analysis, test cases are generated using the extremes of the input domaini, e.g. maximum, minimum, just inside/outside boundaries, typical values, and error values. BVA is similar to Equivalence Partitioning but focuses on “corner cases”.

Branch Testing: Testing in which all branches in the program source code are tested at least once.

Breadth Testing: A test suite that exercises the full functionality of a product but does not test features in detail.

Bug: A fault in a program which causes the program to perform in an unintended or unanticipated manner.

CAST: Computer Aided Software Testing.

Capture/Replay Tool: A test tool that records test input as it is sent to the software under test. The input cases stored can then be used to reproduce the test at a later time. Most commonly applied to GUI test tools.

CMM: The Capability Maturity Model for Software (CMM or SW-CMM) is a model for judging the maturity of the software processes of an organization and for identifying the key practices that are required to increase the maturity of these processes.

Cause Effect Graph: A graphical representation of inputs and the associated outputs effects which can be used to design test cases.

Code Complete: Phase of development where functionality is implemented in entirety; bug fixes are all that are left. All functions found in the Functional Specifications have been implemented.

Code Coverage: An analysis method that determines which parts of the software have been executed (covered) by the test case suite and which parts have not been executed and therefore may require additional attention.

Code Inspection: A formal testing technique where the programmer reviews source code with a group who ask questions analyzing the program logic, analyzing the code with respect to a checklist of historically common programming errors, and analyzing its compliance with coding standards.

Code Walkthrough: A formal testing technique where source code is traced by a group with a small set of test cases, while the state of program variables is manually monitored, to analyze the programmer’s logic and assumptions.

Coding: The generation of source code.

Compatibility Testing: Testing whether software is compatible with other elements of a system with which it should operate, e.g. browsers, Operating Systems, or hardware.

Component: A minimal software item for which a separate specification is available.

Component Testing: See Unit Testing.

Concurrency Testing: Multi-user testing geared towards determining the effects of accessing the same application code, module or database records. Identifies and measures the level of locking, deadlocking and use of single-threaded code and locking semaphores.

Conformance Testing: The process of testing that an implementation conforms to the specification on which it is based. Usually applied to testing conformance to a formal standard.

Context Driven Testing: The context-driven school of software testing is flavor of Agile Testing that advocates continuous and creative evaluation of testing opportunities in light of the potential information revealed and the value of that information to the organization right now.

Conversion Testing: Testing of programs or procedures used to convert data from existing systems for use in replacement systems.

Cyclomatic Complexity: A measure of the logical complexity of an algorithm, used in white-box testing.

Data Dictionary: A database that contains definitions of all data items defined during analysis.

Data Flow Diagram: A modeling notation that represents a functional decomposition of a system.

Data Driven Testing: Testing in which the action of a test case is parameterized by externally defined data values, maintained as a file or spreadsheet. A common technique in Automated Testing.

Debugging: The process of finding and removing the causes of software failures.

Defect: Nonconformance to requirements or functional / program specification

Dependency Testing: Examines an application’s requirements for pre-existing software, initial states and configuration in order to maintain proper functionality.

Depth Testing: A test that exercises a feature of a product in full detail.

Dynamic Testing: Testing software through executing it. See also Static Testing.

Emulator: A device, computer program, or system that accepts the same inputs and produces the same outputs as a given system.

Endurance Testing: Checks for memory leaks or other problems that may occur with prolonged execution.

End-to-End testing: Testing a complete application environment in a situation that mimics real-world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communications, or interacting with other hardware, applications, or systems if appropriate.

Equivalence Class: A portion of a component’s input or output domains for which the component’s behaviour is assumed to be the same from the component’s specification.

Equivalence Partitioning: A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes.

Exhaustive Testing: Testing which covers all combinations of input values and preconditions for an element of the software under test.

Functional Decomposition: A technique used during planning, analysis and design; creates a functional hierarchy for the software.

Functional Specification: A document that describes in detail the characteristics of the product with regard to its intended features.

Functional Testing: See also Black Box Testing. Testing the features and operational behavior of a product to ensure they correspond to its specifications.
Testing that ignores the internal mechanism of a system or component and focuses solely on the outputs generated in response to selected inputs and execution conditions.

Glass Box Testing: A synonym for White Box Testing.

Gorilla Testing: Testing one particular module,functionality heavily.

Gray Box Testing: A combination of Black Box and White Box testing methodologies: testing a piece of software against its specification but using some knowledge of its internal workings.

High Order Tests: Black-box tests conducted once the software has been integrated.
Independent Test Group (ITG): A group of people whose primary responsibility is software testing,

Inspection: A group review quality improvement process for written material. It consists of two aspects; product (document itself) improvement and process improvement (of both document production and inspection).

Integration Testing: Testing of combined parts of an application to determine if they function together correctly. Usually performed after unit and functional testing. This type of testing is especially relevant to client/server and distributed systems.

Installation Testing:Confirms that the application under test recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions.

Load Testing: See Performance Testing.

Localization Testing: This term refers to making software specifically designed for a specific locality.

Loop Testing: A white box testing technique that exercises program loops.

Metric: A standard of measurement. Software metrics are the statistics describing the structure or content of a program. A metric should be a real objective measurement of something such as number of bugs per lines of code.

Monkey Testing: Testing a system or an Application on the fly, i.e just few tests here and there to ensure the system or an application does not crash out.
Mutation Testing: Testing done on the application where bugs are purposely added to it.
Negative Testing: Testing aimed at showing software does not work. Also known as “test to fail”. See also Positive Testing.
N+1 Testing:A variation of Regression Testing. Testing conducted with multiple cycles in which errors found in test cycle N are resolved and the solution is retested in test cycle N+1. The cycles are typically repeated until the solution reaches a steady state and there are no errors. See also Regression Testing.

Path Testing: Testing in which all paths in the program source code are tested at least once.

Performance Testing: Testing conducted to evaluate the compliance of a system or component with specified performance requirements. Often this is performed using an automated test tool to simulate large number of users. Also know as “Load Testing”.

Positive Testing: Testing aimed at showing software works. Also known as “test to pass”. See also Negative Testing.

Quality Assurance: All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service is of the type and quality needed and expected by the customer.

Quality Audit: A systematic and independent examination to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve objectives.

Quality Circle: A group of individuals with related interests that meet at regular intervals to consider problems or other matters related to the quality of outputs of a process and to the correction of problems or to the improvement of quality.

Quality Control: The operational techniques and the activities used to fulfill and verify requirements of quality.

Quality Management: That aspect of the overall management function that determines and implements the quality policy.

Quality Policy: The overall intentions and direction of an organization as regards quality as formally expressed by top management.

Quality System: The organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes, and resources for implementing quality management.

Regression Testing: Retesting a previously tested program following modification to ensure that faults have not been introduced or uncovered as a result of the changes made.
Sanity Testing: Brief test of major functional elements of a piece of software to determine if its basically operational. See also Smoke Testing.

Scalability Testing: Performance testing focused on ensuring the application under test gracefully handles increases in work load.

Security Testing:Testing which confirms that the program can restrict access to authorized personnel and that the authorized personnel can access the functions available to their security level.

Smoke Testing: A quick-and-dirty test that the major functions of a piece of software work. Originated in the hardware testing practice of turning on a new piece of hardware for the first time and considering it a success if it does not catch on fire.

Soak Testing: Running a system at high load for a prolonged period of time. For example, running several times more transactions in an entire day (or night) than would be expected in a busy day, to identify and performance problems that appear after a large number of transactions have been executed.

Software Requirements Specification: A deliverable that describes all data, functional and behavioral requirements, all constraints, and all validation requirements for software.

Software Testing: A set of activities conducted with the intent of finding errors in software.

Static Analysis: Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program.

Static Analyzer: A tool that carries out static analysis.

Static Testing: Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program.

Storage Testing:Testing that verifies the program under test stores data files in the correct directories and that it reserves sufficient space to prevent unexpected termination resulting from lack of space. This is external storage as opposed to internal storage.

Stress Testing: Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component at or beyond the limits of its specified requirements to determine the load under which it fails and how. Often this is performance testing using a very high level of simulated load.

Structural Testing: Testing based on an analysis of internal workings and structure of a piece of software. See also White Box Testing.

System Testing: Testing that attempts to discover defects that are properties of the entire system rather than of its individual components.

Testability: The degree to which a system or component facilitates the establishment of test criteria and the performance of tests to determine whether those criteria have been met.

Testing: The process of exercising software to verify that it satisfies specified requirements and to detect errors.
The process of analyzing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions (that is, bugs), and to evaluate the features of the software item (Ref. IEEE Std 829).
The process of operating a system or component under specified conditions, observing or recording the results, and making an evaluation of some aspect of the system or component.

Test Automation: See Automated Testing.

Test Bed: An execution environment configured for testing. May consist of specific hardware, OS, network topology, configuration of the product under test, other application or system software, etc. The Test Plan for a project should enumerated the test beds(s) to be used.

Test Case: Test Case is a commonly used term for a specific test. This is usually the smallest unit of testing. A Test Case will consist of information such as requirements testing, test steps, verification steps, prerequisites, outputs, test environment, etc.
A set of inputs, execution preconditions, and expected outcomes developed for a particular objective, such as to exercise a particular program path or to verify compliance with a specific requirement.

Test Driven Development:Testing methodology associated with Agile Programming in which every chunk of code is covered by unit tests, which must all pass all the time, in an effort to eliminate unit-level and regression bugs during development. Practitioners of TDD write a lot of tests, i.e. an equal number of lines of test code to the size of the production code.

Test Driver: A program or test tool used to execute a tests. Also known as a Test Harness.

Test Environment:The hardware and software environment in which tests will be run, and any other software with which the software under test interacts when under test including stubs and test drivers.

Test First Design: Test-first design is one of the mandatory practices of Extreme Programming (XP).It requires that programmers do not write any production code until they have first written a unit test.

Test Harness: A program or test tool used to execute a tests. Also known as a Test Driver.

Test Plan: A document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of intended testing activities. It identifies test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, who will do each task, and any risks requiring contingency planning. Ref IEEE Std 829.

Test Procedure: A document providing detailed instructions for the execution of one or more test cases.

Test Scenario: Definition of a set of test cases or test scripts and the sequence in which they are to be executed.

Test Script: Commonly used to refer to the instructions for a particular test that will be carried out by an automated test tool.

Test Specification: A document specifying the test approach for a software feature or combination or features and the inputs, predicted results and execution conditions for the associated tests.

Test Suite: A collection of tests used to validate the behavior of a product. The scope of a Test Suite varies from organization to organization. There may be several Test Suites for a particular product for example. In most cases however a Test Suite is a high level concept, grouping together hundreds or thousands of tests related by what they are intended to test.

Test Tools: Computer programs used in the testing of a system, a component of the system, or its documentation.

Thread Testing: A variation of top-down testing where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels.

Top Down Testing: An approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first, with lower level components being simulated by stubs. Tested components are then used to test lower level components. The process is repeated until the lowest level components have been tested.

Total Quality Management: A company commitment to develop a process that achieves high quality product and customer satisfaction.

Traceability Matrix: A document showing the relationship between Test Requirements and Test Cases.

Usability Testing: Testing the ease with which users can learn and use a product.

Use Case:The specification of tests that are conducted from the end-user perspective. Use cases tend to focus on operating software as an end-user would conduct their day-to-day activities.
User Acceptance Testing: A formal product evaluation performed by a customer as a condition of purchase.

Unit Testing: Testing of individual software components.

Validation:The process of evaluating software at the end of the software development process to ensure compliance with software requirements. The techniques for validation is testing, inspection and reviewing.

Verification:The process of determining whether of not the products of a given phase of the software development cycle meet the implementation steps and can be traced to the incoming objectives established during the previous phase. The techniques for verification are testing, inspection and reviewing.

Volume Testing:Testing which confirms that any values that may become large over time (such as accumulated counts, logs, and data files), can be accommodated by the program and will not cause the program to stop working or degrade its operation in any manner.

Walkthrough: A review of requirements, designs or code characterized by the author of the material under review guiding the progression of the review.

White Box Testing: Testing based on an analysis of internal workings and structure of a piece of software. Includes techniques such as Branch Testing and Path Testing. Also known as Structural Testing and Glass Box Testing. Contrast with Black Box Testing.
Workflow Testing: Scripted end-to-end testing which duplicates specific workflows which are expected to be utilized by the end-user.